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Filtration Membranes, Water and the ESEM

A Thermodynamic Study and In Situ Characterization

Oct. 11, 2011
Fig. 1: ESEM sample chamber equipped with a specially designed cooling stage: The membrane is fixed between two cooling clamps. Water can condense at the cooling clamps and wets the membrane. The membrane surface temperature is measured by micro thermocouples (insert a).
Fig. 1: ESEM sample chamber equipped with a specially designed cooling stage: The membrane is fixed ... more
Fig. 1: ESEM sample chamber equipped with a specially designed cooling stage: The membrane is fixed ... Fig. 2: Cross section of an asymmetric Dura PES 450 membrane; surface A (air side), surface B (roll ... Fig. 3: Image sequence of the drying process of the air side of a  ­Micro ­PES4F membrane; ... Fig. 4: Number of dried up pores and their mean pore diameter during the drying process as a ... Fig. 5: Membrane surface temperature characteristics at the air side and roll side of the membrane ... 

References
[1] Reingruber H. et al.: J.Membr.Sci. 372, 66-74 (2011)
[2] De la Parra R.E.: Micros. Res. Tech. 25, 362-373 (1993)
[3] Stokes D.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2008
[4] Royall C.P. et al.: Journal of Microscopy 204, 185-195 (2001)
[5] Ulbricht M. et al.: Separation and Purification Technology 57, 63-73 (2007)
[6] She F. H. et al.: Robot. Comput. Integrated Manuf. 24, 427-434 (2008)

Contact
Dipl. Ing. Herbert Reingruber
Dr. Armin Zankel
Dr. Peter Pölt

University of Technology Graz
Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research
Graz, Austria
www.felmi-zfe.at

 

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Keywords: Electron Microscopy Environmental scanning electron microscope ESEM Filtration Microfiltration Membrane Poly­ethersulfone Membranes

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