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Filtration Membranes, Water and the ESEM

A Thermodynamic Study and In Situ Characterization

Oct. 11, 2011
Fig. 1: ESEM sample chamber equipped with a specially designed cooling stage: The membrane is fixed between two cooling clamps. Water can condense at the cooling clamps and wets the membrane. The membrane surface temperature is measured by micro thermocouples (insert a).
Fig. 1: ESEM sample chamber equipped with a specially designed cooling stage: The membrane is fixed ... more
Fig. 1: ESEM sample chamber equipped with a specially designed cooling stage: The membrane is fixed ... Fig. 2: Cross section of an asymmetric Dura PES 450 membrane; surface A (air side), surface B (roll ... Fig. 3: Image sequence of the drying process of the air side of a  ­Micro ­PES4F membrane; ... Fig. 4: Number of dried up pores and their mean pore diameter during the drying process as a ... Fig. 5: Membrane surface temperature characteristics at the air side and roll side of the membrane ... 

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Keywords: Electron Microscopy Environmental scanning electron microscope ESEM Filtration Microfiltration Membrane Poly­ethersulfone Membranes

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